The main indication for cystoscopy is the diagnosis of lower urinary tract diseases. Those are:

  • hematuria
  • suspicion of bladder cancer
  • recurrent urinary tract infections
  • suspicion of bladder stones
  • suspicion of bladder tuberculosis
  • diagnosis of irritation symptoms of unknown origin
  • malformations of the lower urinary tract
  • suspected bladder damage
  • the presence of a urinary fistula

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Cystoscopy is a procedure involving direct viewing of the urethra, the bladder neck and the bladder mucosa. The examination is performed under local anesthesia. After decontaminating the urethra, the examiner inserts a cystoscope into the urethra through which it fills the bladder with fluid. The operator then looks at the urethra, bladder neck, ureter openings, and bladder.

The preparation includes, among others performing laboratory blood tests. There are no specific recommendations for preparation for cystoscopy. In patients with an increased risk of urinary tract infections, antibacterial drugs are administered a day or two before the examination.

After cystoscopy, the patient may experience a urge to urinate and a burning sensation in the urethra which usually pass spontaneously within 1-2 days. You should remember about the increased amount of fluids consumed after the test.

There is a possibility of a temporary appearance of blood in the urine (haematuria) for a few days after the test. Occasionally a urinary tract infection occurs that requires the use of antibacterial drugs. In men, it is possible to retain urine after cystoscopy, which requires the insertion of a bladder catheter for a few days and the use of appropriate pharmacological treatment. In the event of symptoms such as: bloody urine with blood clots, urinary retention, fever with lower abdominal pain accompanied by pain in the lumbar region, burning or pain when urinating with urgency and more frequent urination, contact a urologist.


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